Nebraska zoos helping to save species around the world
May 22nd, 2015
Itâ€™s believed there are more than 8 and a half million species of life on earth. On average, around 200 of those go extinct every 24 hours. Scientists from two Nebraska zoos say that loss of life is unacceptable.
While on a field trip from school, about a dozen first grade students gathered around the Matchieâ€™s Tree Kangaroo exhibit at the Lincoln Childrenâ€™s Zoo. It was feeding time for Milla and her joey, Collins.[audio:https://kvnonews.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Nebraska-Zoos-052215-KVNO01.mp3]
The children laughed loudly and screamed with excitement. It didnâ€™t sound like an ideal place to raise a baby, but on the other side of the glass, it was as peaceful as any nursery. A mother and child stretched after their nap, and began eating lunch.
â€œYou just cannot help to not fall in love with them. They are just amazing. Itâ€™s hard sometimes to see that just looking at them, but once you work with them and especially with Milla and everything that sheâ€™s been able to do, I just fell in love,â€ Norsworthy said.
There are about 50 Matchieâ€™s Tree Kangaroosâ€”or tree roos–in the U.S. Milla is mother to seven of them. Indigenous to Papua New Guinea, the 13-year-old tree roo came to the Childrenâ€™s Zoo when she was just 18 months old.
Her successful breeding has helped turn the seven and a half acre zoo into one of the premiere research sites for tree roos in the world. Milla was the first of her species documented to have twins, which Norsworthy monitored from inside the pouch.
â€œIâ€™ve been able to document birth all the way until when [the joey]
However, not every species that needs saving is as cute and cuddly as a tree kangaroo.
Jessi Krebs, the curator of amphibians and reptiles at Omahaâ€™s Henry Doorly Zoo described an animal the holds such a distinction.
â€œThis is the Mississippi gopher frog. Probably the most critically endangered true frog in the United States. At any given time, thereâ€™s anywhere between 75 and 100 adults left in the wild. Behind me weâ€™ve got about 275, which makes it the largest gathering of Mississippi Gopher frogs anywhere in the world,â€ Krebs said, while giving me a tour of something few zoo goers ever see, a 4200 square foot amphibian and reptile isolation area.
Each of the individual enclosures was sealed off from the rest with a precision that rivals a hospital burn unit.
Animals were isolated by species in environments mimicking their own natural habitat. Krebs said thereâ€™s no manual on how to care for these animals, so the zoo developed its own techniques. Everything from the water in the tanks to the bugs they eat is under strict control and observation.
Take for instance the Kihansi Spray toad, a species thatâ€™s extinct in the wild and when full grown is about the size of a quarter.
â€œWe know through trial and error that these animals can only eat newly hatched crickets that are no more than two days old,â€ Krebs said, â€œIf the cricket is three days old itâ€™s too big.â€
Krebs said of the nine critically endangered species being cared for in the isolation area, only four are part of a program to re-introduce them back into the wild. The rest, like the Kihansi spray toad, are part of whatâ€™s called a population assurance colony.
â€œWhich means their numbers in the wild are decreasing, but weâ€™re not sure how to mitigate those losses. We donâ€™t know how to stop the pollution, how to stop the habitat destruction, and the emerging diseases that are in those areas we canâ€™t get a handle on. So before those animals completely go extinct, we grab a bunch of them up, we bring them into zoo care and university care, and weâ€™re going to maintain them for multiple generations until we can reverse those problems they were facing,â€ Krebs said.
Population assurance colonies are also helpful when it comes to endangered plant species as well.
â€œItâ€™s essential. Itâ€™s the basis for all life on earth. Without the plants, we canâ€™t exist. The animals canâ€™t exist. The insects wouldnâ€™t exist. The birds wouldnâ€™t, the microbesâ€¦everything depends on the plants,â€ From said.
In 2003, From said a particular variety of fern, the Governor LeFannâ€™s Fern, was all but extinct. There were just five plants left at the Bermuda Botanical Gardens when a hurricane hit the facility.
â€œIt knocked the greenhouse down. It splashed salt water on [the ferns], and so for the next few years, all five of those last five specimens for that species slowly died,â€ From said.
But as fate would have it, just days before the hurricane hit, From received samples from those ferns that she was able to cultivate into full plants, thus saving the species from extinction.
â€œThey have now reintroduced [the ferns] back into the wild in Bermuda, a small number of them in 2014. For the first time in 110 years, they are back now in natural, protected areas in Bermuda,â€ From said.
The Governor LeFannâ€™s fern is just 1 of almost 180 species of plants From tends at the Conservation Research Center. All told, Nebraska zoos are helping to save more than 100 animal species from extinction as well.
From and other researchers agreed the conservation work being done in Nebraska is vital to the survival of numerous species all over the globe
And itâ€™s that conservation work which helps bring students to zoos to see animals like the Matschieâ€™s tree kangaroo. Without the work of Nebraska zoos, those students may have otherwise only been able to see a tree roo in a history book.
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