New Year, Same Old Drought
January 4th, 2013[audio:https://kvnonews.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/audio1.mp3]
2012 was a drought year for the record books. It was the warmest year ever recorded in Des Moines, Iowa, Topeka, Kansas, and Columbia, Missouri and the driest ever in Grand Island, Nebraska. The question is whether 2013 will be any different.
With a crop in the ground, winter wheat farmers need things to change in a hurry. But climatologists arenâ€™t so sure that will happen.
â€œUnfortunately (the drought is) not over and weâ€™re definitely starting 2013 in a different status than what we entered 2012,â€ said Michael Hayes, director of the National Drought Mitigation Center based at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
2012 started with about 14 percent of Nebraska in drought. 2013 starts with the entire state in drought and 77 percent in exceptional drought, the most severe category.
â€œThis year, when weâ€™re already behind the eight-ball when you look at the moisture situation, weâ€™ll be living rain to rain much earlier unless we get a huge spring,â€ said Mark Svoboda, a climatologist at the Drought Mitigation Center.
Farmers who raise winter wheat are already living rain to rain, or snow to snow. Winter wheat is normally planted around September and harvested in June. This time of year there should be a field of low, green grass as the young wheat goes through its winter dormancy. But the warm and dry fall caused a bit of a false start for the crop.
Dan Hughes, who grows wheat in Chase and Perkins counties near the Colorado border in southwestern Nebraska, planted as deep into the dry soil as he could hoping the wheat could find moisture.
â€œWe put our drills in and planted it about an inch, inch and a half (deep) and prayed for rain,â€ Hughes said. â€œAnd you know itâ€™s not looking the best, but at least you can see that itâ€™s going down the rows.â€
Greg Kruger, a cropping systems specialist at the University of Nebraskaâ€™s West Central Research and Extension Center in North Platte, said in some places the wheat seed never even sprouted from the parched soil.
â€œIn our dryland farm it was zero germination,â€ Kruger said. â€œCertainly standing at field edge youâ€™re not going to see anything.â€
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 49 percent of Nebraskaâ€™s winter wheat crop is in poor or very poor condition. Seventy percent is poor or very poor in South Dakota. That number is 31 percent in Kansas, the nationâ€™s top winter wheat state.
â€œFor those fortunate to get the crop up, thereâ€™s potential if we get some rain or snowfall it could recover,â€ Kruger said. â€œBut I think for a lot of that wheat crop that USDA keeps reporting as poor or very poor, the long term outlook on those fields is going to be pretty bleak.â€
Many communities are ten inches or more behind their normal precipitation for the year. Nebraska State Climatologist Al Dutcher said catching up on the drought would require setting more records â€“ for snow.
â€œOur record snowfall is just over 100 inches in a winter,â€ Dutcher said. â€œAnd these deficits are so extensive that if we wanted to completely eliminate (the drought) with snowfall weâ€™d be looking in the area of 125 to 150 inches of snowfall with normal snow equivalency rates. I donâ€™t think anybody wants to see that type of a winter.â€
In fact, there are no predictions for ten feet of snow over the next several weeks. By the spring, there is a chance for improvement, but there are also some troubling signs and not just for wheat farmers.
First, snowpack in the Rockies is normal, at best. Normal might sound good, but Michael Hayes at the Drought Mitigation Center said thatâ€™s not enough to refill diminished rivers and reservoirs. Without more snow, water disputes along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers could continue.
â€œThere are going to be a lot of pressures put on politicians and the managers of those river systems to fairly allocate how that water gets distributed,â€ Hayes said.
And climatologist Mark Svoboda said another reason for concern is dry weather settling back into parts of Texas and the Gulf Coast, areas that feed moisture into the Midwest.
â€œThe moisture down there is our source region for our precipitation and our temperatures for the late spring and summer period,â€ Svoboda said. â€œSo if they stay dry and hot, that sort of migrated up north last year. That could repeat this year. Thatâ€™s not a good sign.â€
For now, the wheat markets are withholding judgment. Strong global supplies are keeping prices in check. Dan Hughes, the Nebraska wheat farmer, said if things go from bad to worse he can lean on his crop insurance. But he still feels optimistic about his fortunes in the new year.
â€œYou know itâ€™s like I tell my banker, a good rainâ€™s coming so sooner or later it will be here.â€
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